Cooling of the turbine condenser in a power plant with non-recirculated river water. Direct cooling with fresh water is the cheapest cooling method regarding the required investment when sufficient river water is available. To avoid too high a thermal load of the river water, maximum values for the inlet temperature of the heated water (e.g. 30 °C), for the heating of the entire river water following mixing (25 °C or 28 °C) and the heating margin (3 °C) were fixed. As a result of the preload, a further thermal load is impossible for many rivers in Germany. Therefore, closed-circuit cooling is increasingly used.