For Protection facility around radioactive sources and nuclear i... calculations, Calculation method to determine the effects caused by the re... or to determine Dose equivalent for soft tissue measured at a certain point.... rates, it is often sufficient to consider only a few special radionuclides, the leader nuclides. The latter have a chemical similarity and/or such a high specific The spontaneous conversion of a nuclide into another nuclide... Ability to do work or diffuse heat. The unit of energy is th... that they override the effects of lower radiating radionuclides. The fact that they are disregarded in calculation therefore does not entail an error in the Radiation protection deals with the protection of individual... calculations. Reference nuclides are also used to calculate the quantity of other nuclides in the case of known history of the material containing the nuclide(s).