As a rule, radioactive waste becomes suitable for ultimate disposal by embedding in a matrix. The stability of the solidification product is adjusted to the requirements of the type of waste, for instance, radiotoxicity, decay heat, half-life and others. Solidification criteria are:

  • mechanical resistance to avoid dispersion,
  • radiation protection resistance to avoid radiolysis,
  • thermal conductivity to remove decay heat.

Cement mortar is used for low and medium active waste and borosilicate glass is used for high active waste as a solidification material.